Natural disasters are catastrophic disasters that occur as a result of natural processes on the planet. Floods, storms, tsunamis, and earthquakes are just a few examples. Over the course of its 4.54 billion-year history, the earth has seen several natural disasters. Several mass extinction events and severe consequences for various surviving species have resulted from some of these events. To find the answer to this and more details on Natural disasters here is a blog that will explore everything!

In this post, Pritish Kumar Halder explained the meaning of natural disasters and their types with description.

What is Natural Disaster?

A natural disaster can be defined as “A major event caused by Earth’s natural processes that leads to significant environmental degradation and loss of life.” A natural disaster is frequently preceded by a natural hazard. The Gujarat Earthquake, for example, which struck on January 26, 2001, was a natural calamity. The natural danger lives underneath the active fault lines that run through Gujarat.

Anthropogenic causes, on the other hand, can cause or affect some natural dangers. Deforestation, mining, and agricultural activities, for example, can all cause landslides. Natural disasters frequently result in widespread damage. Natural disasters, such as wildfires, destroy animal habitats while also causing property damage and loss of life.

Types of Natural Disasters

Geological Disasters, Hydrological Disasters, Meteorological Disasters, and Biological Disasters are the four broad types of natural hazards.

Types of natural disaster

Geological Disasters

Geological hazards, or dangers caused by geological (i.e., Earth) processes, such as plate tectonics, are a type of risk. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are examples of this. In general, geological extreme events are beyond human control, however, humans have a significant impact on the events’ consequences.

Meteorological Disasters

Hazards caused by meteorological (i.e., weather) phenomena, particularly those related to temperature and wind, are known as meteorological hazards. Heat waves, cold waves, cyclones, hurricanes, and freezing rain are all examples of this. In the Atlantic, cyclones are known as hurricanes, while in the Pacific, they are known as typhoons.

Hydrological Disasters

Hazards caused by hydrological (water) processes are known as hydrological hazards. Floods, droughts, mudslides, and tsunamis are examples of natural disasters. Floods and droughts may cause havoc on agriculture and are one of the leading causes of famine. The 1931 Central China floods killed three or four million people, making it the greatest natural disaster in history (excluding pandemics).

Biological Disasters

Biological dangers are those that arise as a result of biological processes. This comprises a wide range of diseases, including infectious diseases that move from person to person and pose a significant threat to vast populations of people. Biological hazards are often left out of discussions about natural hazards, instead of falling under the purview of medicine and public health.

Geological Disasters Meteorological Disasters Hydrological Disasters Biological Disasters
Volcanic Eruption
Limnic Eruption
Cold waves
Hepatitis ATuberculosis
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C



Tornadoes are rotating, funnel-shaped clouds that form as a result of intense thunderstorms. With powerful winds averaging 30 miles per hour, they extend from a thunderstorm to the ground. They can also go from being stationary to 70 miles per hour in a matter of seconds.

Tornadoes can strike with little or no notice, giving those in affected areas only seconds to seek shelter. People often endure emotional anguish as a result of the unexpected nature of tornadoes and severe storms. Overwhelming anxiety, difficulty sleeping, and other depression-like symptoms are common reactions to natural disasters.


Tropical storms that originate in the southern Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern Pacific Ocean are known as hurricanes. Every year, hurricanes harm millions of people living along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Hurricanes are known to cause mental suffering in their victims. Before, during, and after these types of storms, people commonly experience intense anxiety, continual worrying, difficulty sleeping, and other depression-like symptoms. Other symptoms of hurricane-related emotional distress include.

Fearing that forecasted storms could turn into hurricanes, even if the chances of this happening are slim, yelling or fighting with family and friends on a regular basis Having storm-related thoughts, memories, or dreams that you can’t seem to get out of your head.


Floods happen when water overflows from an area that is ordinarily dry. These are caused by a variety of factors, including hurricanes and tropical storms, broken dams or levees, and flash floods that happen within minutes or hours of heavy rain. Although floods are more common around the shore, especially during hurricane season, they can happen anywhere and vary in magnitude and length. Even little streams, gullies, and creeks that appear to be unaffected in dry weather might become flooded. Here are some symptoms of emotional discomfort caused by floods.

If you’re feeling hopeless or helpless, Fearing that anticipated storms would turn into hurricanes, even if the chances of this happening are slim, yelling or fighting with family and friends on a regular basis.


An earthquake occurs when the Earth’s plates shift, causing a violent shaking of the ground that can last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes. Mild initial shaking might quickly intensify and become violent. Earthquakes are quite common, and they happen every day somewhere in the world. Even mild earthquakes that cause minor damage and destruction can induce emotional discomfort in people (especially in areas not accustomed to these events). Aftershocks can occur for months after an earthquake, and they can be just as distressing. Here are some symptoms of emotional distress caused by earthquakes.

Being easily startled, having trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, and having thoughts and memories of the earthquake that you can’t shake


A drought is a common, recurring meteorological occurrence that varies in intensity and duration depending on the region of the country and even within a state. This occurs when precipitation is below average for an extended period of time, usually a season or more. Drought can also be caused by a delay in the rainy season or rain timing in relation to crop development. Some symptoms of drought-related emotional discomfort include.

Feelings of overwhelming anxiety, continual worrying, difficulty sleeping, and other depressive-like symptoms, disagreements between people over limited water supplies, health issues connected to dust, insufficient water flow, or poor water and air quality, and financial problems due to crop failures.