The purpose of your lens is to bend (refract) light rays that come into the eye to help you see. Your own lens should be clear, but with a cataract it is cloudy. Having a cataract can be like looking through a foggy or dusty car windshield. Things may look blurry, hazy or less colourful.
The only way to remove a cataract is with surgery. Your ophthalmologist will recommend removing a cataract when it keeps you from doing things you want or needs to do.
Pritish Kumar Halder illustrates that the surgery usually takes well under an hour. Your surgeon will make a tiny cut in the front of your eye, sometimes with the help of a laser.
During cataract surgery, your cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with a clear artificial lens. That lens is called an intraocular lens (IOL). Your ophthalmologist will talk with you about IOLs and how they work.
There are two types of cataract surgery: small incision cataract surgery and extracapsular surgery.
Small incision cataract surgery
Small incision cataract surgery (SICS) is the more common of the two procedures. SICS involves making a tiny incision into the cornea, which is the outermost layer of the eye. The cornea is the dome-shaped part of the eye that sits in front of the lens.
A surgeon then inserts a probe through the incision into the cornea. The probe uses ultrasound waves to break up the lens so that the surgeon can remove it in small pieces. Eye doctors call this process phacoemulsification. The surgeon leaves the lens capsule, which is the thin outer membrane that covers the lens, in place and inserts a new, artificial lens into it. Typically, the incision in the cornea does not require any sutures.
In some cases, a person may be unable to receive an artificial lens due to other eye problems. In such cases, wearing contact lenses or eyeglasses may correct vision problems.
Extracapsular surgery involves making a large incision in the cornea. This allows the surgeon to remove the lens in one piece. As with SICS, they leave the lens capsule in place to support the new, artificial lens.
Typically, surgeons carry out this type of surgery when phacoemulsification cannot break up the cloudy spots.
What to Expect with Cataract Surgery
Your surgeon will measure your eye to determine the proper focusing power for your IOL. Also, you will be asked about any medicines you take. You might be asked not to take some of these medicines before surgery.
Eye-drop medicines prescribed to start before surgery. These medicines help prevent infection and reduce swelling during and after surgery.
The day of surgery:
Your ophthalmologist may ask you not to eat any solid food at least 6 hours before your surgery.
Cataract removal surgery may be done in an outpatient surgery center or in a hospital. Here is what will happen:
- Your eye will be numbed with eye drops or with an injection around the eye. Doctor may also give medicine to help you relax.
- You will be awake during surgery. You may see light and movement during the procedure, but you will not see what the doctor is doing to your eye.
- Your surgeon looks through a special microscope. She creates tiny incisions (cuts, created by blade or a laser ) near the edge of your cornea. The surgeon uses these incisions to reach the lens in your eye. Using very small instruments, he or she will break up the lens with the cataract and remove it. Then she puts your new lens into place.
- Usually your surgeon will not need to stitch the incisions closed. These “self sealing” incisions will close by themselves over time. A shield will be placed over your eye to protect it while you heal from surgery.
- You will rest in a recovery area for about 15–30 minutes. Then you will be ready to go home.
How Long Does It Take To Recover From Cataract Surgery?
Days or weeks after surgery:
- You may have to use eye drops after surgery. Be sure to follow your doctor’s directions for using these drops.
- Avoid getting soap or water directly in the eye.
- Do not rub or press on your eye. Your ophthalmologist may ask you to wear eyeglasses or a shield to protect your eye.
- You will need to wear a protective eye shield when you sleep.
- Your ophthalmologist will talk with you about how active you can be soon after surgery. He or she will tell you when you can safely exercise, drive or do other activities again.
What Are the Risks of Cataract Surgery?
Like any surgery, cataract surgery carries risks of problems or complications. Here are some of those risks:
- Eye infection.
- Bleeding in the eye.
- Ongoing swelling of the front of the eye or inside of the eye.
- Swelling of the retina (the nerve layer at the back of your eye).
- Detached retina (when the retina lifts up from the back of the eye).
- Damage to other parts of your eye.
- Pain that does not get better with over-the-counter medicine.
- Blurred vision.
- Seeing halos, glare, and dark shadows.
- Vision loss.
- The IOL implant may become dislocated, moving out of position.
Cataract surgery will not restore vision lost from other eye conditions, such as macular degeneration, glaucoma, or diabetic retinopathy.
Your ophthalmologist will talk with you about the risks and benefits of cataract surgery.