Bulletproof glass, ballistic glass, transparent armour, or bullet-resistant glass is a strong and optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to penetration by projectiles. Like any other material, it is not completely impenetrable.

It is usually made from a combination of two or more types of glass, one hard and one soft. The softer layer makes the glass more elastic so that it can flex instead of shatter. The index of refraction for both of the glasses used in the bulletproof layers must be almost the same to keep the glass transparent and allow a clear, undistorted view through the glass. Bulletproof glass varies in thickness from 3⁄4 to 3+1⁄2 inches (19 to 89 mm).

Pritish Halder discusses transparent bulletproof Glass, its construction method and also environmental impacts.

Bulletproof glass is used in windows of buildings that require such security, such as jewellery stores and embassies, and of military and private vehicles.

Bulletproof glass window of a jewelry shop


Bullet-resistant glass is constructed using layers of laminated glass. The more layers there are, the more protection the glass offers. When a weight reduction is needed 3mm of polycarbonate (a thermoplastic) is laminated onto the safe side to stop spall. The aim is to make a material with the appearance and clarity of standard glass but with effective protection from small arms. Polycarbonate designs usually consist of products such as Armormax, Makroclear, Cyrolon: a soft coating that heals after being scratched (such as elastomeric carbon-based polymers) or a hard coating that prevents scratching (such as silicon-based polymers).

The plastic in laminate designs also provides resistance to impact from physical assault from blunt and sharp objects. These plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance. The glass, which is much harder than plastic, flattens the bullet, and the plastic deforms, with the aim of absorbing the rest of the energy and preventing penetration. Its ability of the polycarbonate layer to stop projectiles with varying energy is directly proportional to its thickness,and bulletproof glass of this design may be up to 3.5 inches thick.


Protection Level Threat Stopped
UL 752 Level 1 9 mm 3 shots
UL 752 Level 2 0.357 Magnum 3 shots
UL 752 Level 3 0.44 Magnum 3 shots (5 shots for NIJ IIIa)
UL 752 Level 4 0.30-06 1 shot
UL 752 Level 5 7.62 mm 1 shot
UL 752 Level 6

UL 752 Level 7

0.357 Magnum underloaded 5 shots

5.56×45 5 shots

UL 752 Level 8 7.62 mm NATO 5 shots
UL 752 Level 9 0.30-06 M2 AP 1 shot
UL 752 Level 10 0.50 BMG 1 shot

Test standards

Bullet-resistant materials are tested using a gun to fire a projectile from a set distance into the material, in a specific pattern. Levels of protection are based on the ability of the target to stop a specific type of projectile traveling at a specific speed. Experiments suggest that polycarbonate fails at lower velocities with regular shaped projectiles compared to irregular ones (like fragments), meaning that testing with regular shaped projectiles gives a conservative estimate of its resistance.

Laminated glass layers are built from glass sheets bonded together with polyvinyl butyral, polyurethane, Sentryglas, or ethylene-vinyl acetate. When treated with chemical processes, the glass becomes much stronger. This design has been in regular use on combat vehicles since World War II. It is typically thick and is usually extremely heavy.

When projectiles do not penetrate, the depth of the dent left by the impact can be measured and related to the projectile’s velocity and thickness of the material. Some researchers have developed mathematical models based on results of this kind of testing to help them design bulletproof glass to resist specific anticipated threats.

Environmental effects

The properties of bullet-resistant glass can be affected by temperature and by exposure to solvents or UV radiation, usually from sunlight. If the polycarbonate layer is below a glass layer, it has some protection from UV radiation due to the glass and bonding layer. Over time the polycarbonate becomes more brittle because it is an amorphous polymer (which is necessary for it to be transparent) that moves toward thermodynamic equilibrium.

Spinel ceramics

Certain types of ceramics can also be used for transparent armor due to their properties of increased density and hardness when compared to traditional glass. These types of synthetic ceramic transparent armors can allow for thinner armor with equivalent stopping power to traditional laminated glass.

Air chamber glass

The newest type of curved transparent vehicle armor has an air chamber between the glass and the polycarbonate. Level IIIA (high speed 9 mm) armor consists 8 mm of laminated glass (strike face), a 1 mm air gap, and 7 mm of polycarbonate. This solution stops the bullets in a totally different way. The glass, being hard, deforms the incoming bullet.

Deformed bullet completely penetrates the glass and then it is stopped by the flexible polycarbonate. The weight reduction over traditional glass-clad polycarbonate is 35%, weighing. 25 kilos per square meter for level NIJ 06 IIIA (NIJ 07 HG2). It is also thinner (16.2 mm) vs conventional Glass Clad Polycarbonate (21 mm).